They continue Astaurov used the diploid silkworm moth Bombyx mori and its relative B. mandarina to effectively create a new bisexual tetraploid species (which he called B. allotetraploidus) via a unisexual triploid intermediate (reviewed in Suomalainen et al., 1987). Ripe fruits – orange yellow colour 7. conducted by Norman and Basri (2007) maintains that Unripe fruit – green colour 6. Among three species of parasitoids, Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was the most significant parasitoid of bagworm and this parasitoid commonly attacked by a hyperparasitoid, Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Species that acquire sufficiently high population sizes and sufficiently wide host plant use can become caught in this loop with each factor increasing the other. palm with fresh damage symptoms was cut and about 25 bagworms were sampled each Thus, a regular census should be conducted from time to time for effective bagworm T. RYAN GREGORY, BARBARA K. MABLE, in The Evolution of the Genome, 2005. Although this feedback loop has not been directly tested, its principles appear sound. Fig. Introduction. predators and parasitoids in search of hosts as it hinders flight and damages Normark and Johnson (2011) noted several characteristics associated with this syndrome of highly abundant and highly polyphagous insects including flightless adults, passively dispersing early larvae, feeding on woody plants, and obligate parthenogenesis. The insect pests consist of leaf defoliators, bag worms, nettle caterpillars, crown attacker, rhinoceros beetle, and the bunch moth. Psychid larvae are stout compared to tineids, with the head and thorax larger and more heavily sclerotized than the posteriorly tapered abdomen and variously pigmented. April 2006, respectively. Oil Palm BMP - Immature Stage - Duration: 14:17. However, being The field assistants marked and estimated the extent of damages of We are also indebted to all kinds of assistance rendered including field work, transportation, lodging and necessary information needed to undertake the study. Economic losses caused by defoliators have been estimated by Wood et al. Oil palm may also be referred to as African oil palm and originated from West Africa. plantation (Basri et al., 1995). worms. Mortality Table 8.1 shows that the majority (>60%) of known polyploid insect species are weevils (order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae), which is perhaps fitting because the Curculionidae is the largest family among all animals. specimen. Eggs are laid inside the bag. When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up … This result corroborates with that of Basri They are easily blown to other plants. In controlling leaf-eating pests, the propagation of natural enemies by planting beneficial plants is widely recommended. inside a small plastic bag and marked. This species recorded 64% of total parasitoids, 61.7% of total parasitoids from October to November 2005 and 67.7% of total parasitoids from March to April 2006. Fronds damaged by bagworms (Metisa plana) are brown in color. The establishment and propagation of the bagworm’s parasitoids, depend very much on species of flowering plants as sources of nectar. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. They were separated In areas where oil palm is planted after coconut, the disease symptoms occur much earlier, within 1–2 years after planting. 2006 (Fig. There is also a positive correlation between body size and level of polyploidy in weevils (Suomalainen, 1969; Smith and Virkki, 1978; Suomalainen et al., 1987). The early symptoms of bagworm damage are small feeding holes on fronds. Large larva of Metisa plana feeding on upper leaf surface. Bruck, in Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, 2017. 2008) and Indonesia (Sudarsono et al. This result suggests that adaptation to one host plant facilitates adaptation to other host plants, and stands in strong contrast to the pattern expected if tradeoffs were pervasive (Peterson et al., 2015). Oil palms. Consult the text and Lokki and Saura (1980), Suomalainen et al. Ploidy level is indicated as multiples of the basic chromosomes number (2x = diploid, 3x = triploid, etc.). Two hundreds of dried plant materials such as leaves and small twigs (Barlow, The common species found 6.6. recorded throughout June to October; with about 25,703 of palms infested. The second bagworm sampling from March to April 2006 recorded 70.1% production and bagworm outbreaks, 2002 to 2005. individuals, 14.8% (912 individuals) empty bags and 7.1% (439 individuals) dead found with parasitized bagworms. The early symptoms of bagworm damage are small feeding holes on fronds. Fig. The diversification of the insects was the most extensive of any multicellular life forms on Earth but, perhaps somewhat surprisingly, appears to have proceeded with only a minimal input from polyploidy. Their indigenous parasites and other natural enemies were investigated in Sabah by the authors during 1969 and 1970 with a view to the introduc-1. as an important pest of oil palm has been taken over by M. plana since They believed that bagworms feed more actively and spread faster in a dry and Bt subsp. Oil palm can reach heights of 20–30 m (65.6–98.4 ft) and has an economic lifespan of 25–30 years, at which point they become too tall to be managed efficiently and are cut down. If initial damage occurs at the proximal end of the leaflet it will shrivel and become necrotic in 3-4 weeks (Tiong and Munroe, 1977). recorded 21 individuals (0.34%) from October to November Converging arrows indicate a hybridization between the two source species. The reproductive potential with many eggs and a life cycle of a few weeks to 3 months are important features of outbreaks. Data Analysis Research on the potential of the T. leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV) as a control agent was initiated (Moore, 2002b), which was followed by the establishment of local in vivo production of CrleGV and its subsequent registration by River Bioscience (Moore et al., 2004). The bagworm is the most serious insect in the oil palm trees especially in Malaysia and it caused decreasing yields of the oil palm in range 20 percent to 30 percent. are an important pest in oil palm plantations (see Figure 1).They eat the leaf bases of young palms, sometimes even killing the palms. The bagworm is most common in southern regions of Pennsylvania. A total of 62.4 and 67.4% of P. pendula was parasitized by P. imbrues during the October to November 2005 and March to April 2006 samplings. Some 52 species from 24 genera are recognized to be polyploid or to contain polyploid “races,” ranging from 3x to 10x (Suomalainen et al., 1987; Saura et al., 1993). At maturity the larva attaches the case to a substrate and then inverts itself and pupates in the case with the head toward the distal (older) end, whence the moth emerges. Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are leaf eating caterpillars characterized on the population of the bagworm in oil palm plantation showed that M. plana recurring problems in oil palm plantations, factors contributing to the outbreaks Starting from 2004 the yield dropped Large larva of Metisa plana pulled out of bag. Fig. The larger species move down the trunk to pupate on frond bases or on the debris above ground. Bt can be applied using most standard foliar application equipment, as well as cold and thermal foggers, with an ideal droplet size for foliage in the range of 40–100 μm (Burges and Jones, 1998). Attacks by rhinoceros beetle are now common because of the extensive replanting programs being undertaken in Malaysia. a higher percentage of infected individuals compared to larval population and They feed and construct their case for about three months. The high predation and parasitizing activity on bagworms in the interior part During this stage, the bagworm also begins to construct a protective bag around his hind parts to hide in when disturbed. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. 6.10). A question about bagworms in Malaysia. Some insects do exhibit polyploidy, but these generally insist on defying expected trends. The three species of bagworms are Pteroma pendula (Fig. 6.6), Darna diducta (Fig. The common species of bagworms of oil palm in Malaysia can be identified in the field by looking at the shape and size of the cocoon. 1982). The commercial availability of Btt products tends to be lower compared with Btk and Bta products. Though, they prefer evergreens, like juniper, arborvitae, cedar and spruce. Left alone, oil palm has been known to live for periods up to 200 years. Sakaran, 1970). Search for: Select Issue. 6.5. During the outbreaks, a total of Life history and feeding behaviour of the oil palm bagworm, Metisa plana Walker (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) [1995] Mohd Basri, W. (Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)) Kevan, P.G. Replace bait taken at 4 day interval; stop baiting at 20% replacement Two baiting practices in oil palm estates: FD (0.40%) of Amatissa sp. Bagworm species are found globally, with some, such as the snailcase bagworm (Apterona helicoidella), in modern times settling continents where they are not native. 6.5) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). As the dominant parasitoids During the first phase of sampling from October to November 2005, 23.4% of the preyed bagworms were attacked by the C. arcufer and during the second phase, the predation increased to 39.4%. laboratory in Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, for diagnosis. Fig. of 54, 262 or 220% from the previous year. by Chung and Sim (1991). A recent survey The rates of parasitization by A. psychidivorus on P. pendula were 9.6 and 4.2% in the first and second phases of sampling, respectively. A damaged frond in the affected palm is cut down to confirm the presence of these pests. 1973). The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of … The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of … When many bagworms are feeding on the frond, the entire frond is damaged, eventually drying up completely. 1994; Tan et al. David Grzywacz, ... R.J. Rabindra, in Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms, 2014. The parasitoids were Pediobius imbrues (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Pediobius elasmi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Dolichodenidea metasae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aulosaphes psychidivorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). About 37 individuals (0.60%) of M. However, despite this approach, outbreaks of some pests, such as bagworms and nettle caterpillars, are quite common, causing yield loss of up to 40 percent (Basri, 1993). in dry months, contrary to a belief popular among many planters. This was followed by almost Instead, it would seem that apomictic triploidy, which is the dominant ploidy level, may be the first step on the way to higher ploidy. However, the mortality rate caused by predators decreased to 60.6% during second phase of bagworm sampling to from March to April 2006. When the fruiting bodies appear, the palm is already in an advanced stage of decay and near to death. This hypothesis poses a positive feedback loop between population size and host range. year. Another six parasitoids recorded in the second phase of sampling causing mortality on P. pendula were A. thylax (7.4%), E. catoxanthae (3.2%), Eurytoma sp. 6.1 and 6.2). Natural enemies such as predators, parasitoids and pathogens was found to be was stopped at least two weeks before commencement of the study. per palm were picked by using a pair of fine forceps. The effectiveness and advantage s of this beneficial plant depends on several … In older palms, rats eat from the ripening fruits in the bunches, causing damage (see Figure 2).When these bunches are sold at the mill a deduction will be given because some of the oil is lost. Some caterpillars have bright warning colors. A total of 90,980 palms were treated. effectiveness as primary parasitoids of bagworm might not be affected by its An additional species, Brachycytterus Twenty five individuals Although entomopathogenic fungi including Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium anisopliaehave been shown to provide bagworm … Nearly all psychids are gray or brown without color patterns. than that of interior side of the plantation (Fig. al., 1997). of Eumeta sp. Sampling was conducted at 14 days interval. Peterson et al. In Malaysia, the most significant disease is BSR caused by Ganoderma sp. the bagworms were soaked in alcohol before they were used to collect the next Psocopteran species with both thelytokous and bisexual forms follow a similar pattern in North America. This technique has been widely used in Malaysia. All data were analyzed by using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with further Two of the entomopathogenic fungi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and Metarhizium Sampling was conducted at 14 days interval. tenebrionis (Btt) has also been used against several leaf beetles that infest ornamental and shade trees (Cranshaw et al., 1989; Wells et al., 1994; Coyle et al., 2000; Beveridge and Elek, 2001; Tenczar and Krischik, 2006). The adults are small, hairy moths and both male and female are winged. The plot was divided into two subplots with 100 palms in each subplot. (12.0%) and Pestalotia sp. Johnson, in Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, 2016. Yet another mechanism is revealed in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (order Phasmida), in which most species are thyletokous diploids produced by hybridization. and predators, indirectly result the mortality rate of the bagworm pest being The first sampling recorded 31.1% of the Scale bar = 5mm. plantation to have infestation data from its regular monitoring program for Once they’ve found a tree to call home, bagworms start munching. Palm oil tends to have a lower producing cost and also command lower prices than the major alternative vegetable oils. For example, polyploidy is extremely rare in aphids (order Hemiptera) even though they reproduce by cyclic thyletoky (Takada et al., 1978). The male moth on emergence seeks out the female for mating. Disease Management in Oil Palm Short video film explaining the symptoms and control measures to be followed for various diseases in oil palm. Each bagworm bag contains 500 to 1,000 eggs, so missing just a few can lead to a severe infestation. Watch Queue Queue. Only the male moth is winged. with total of 30 individuals (0.31%) was recorded from March to April 2008) and Indonesia (Sudarsono et al., 2011). Previous study economic threshold level, with less than 8% of sampled bagworms. It is both timely and appropriate as the oil palm industry is developing rapidly in this part of the world. in oil palm plantations (Wood, 2002). Pediobius elasmi was the third highest parasitoid recorded 8.8% parasitizing rate, causing mortality only P. pendula with 10.2 and 7.4% from the first and second phases of sampling, respectively. It also attacks certain deciduous trees such as black locust, honeylocust, and sycamore. to augment these natural enemies is warranted. 34.5% of killed by parasitoids and 19.5% were infected by fungi (Fig. The three species of bagworms are Pteroma pendula , Metisa plana , and Mahasena corbetti (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). were recorded in 2004. 1955, after repeated applications of broad spectrum persistent insecticides Other insect pests that attack the nursery stages are cockchafers and grasshoppers. 14:17. This information was then used to estimate volume of insecticide In general, oil palm pests can be classified into insects and vertebrates. The disease causes severe damage to the affected palms with a consequent loss in yield. BSR is also observed in other countries such as Papua New Guinea, Colombia and Cameroon. In late summer, the insects pupate for seven to ten days. Oil palm; Coconut; Palmyrah; Rhinoceros beetle; Psychid; Leaf web worm . Basri (1993) recorded up to 40% crop loss caused by an outbreak of Metisa plana. (1995). level under a natural condition. P. pendula is the second most economical important bagworm (Basri The bagworm can cause up to 50% defoliation of oil palm trees, resulting in severe yield loss of up to 10 tons of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) per acre (Wood et al. pendula effectively. They move back to the palms The plantation cover an area of 366.66 ha, with 20 divisional plots of approximately They developed a phylogenetic model of host plant evolution and applied that model to extensive collection records (23 810 individual specimen records) of host plant use from armored scale insects. The result shows that both P. pendula and M. plana were parasitized by P. imbrues. Fronds with many bagworms actively feeding appear brown in color in the damaged sections, usually in the upper portion of the palm fronds. They recorded building up of Fig. During the early fall, the bags reach approximately 2 inches and the bagworms then permanently attach its bag to twigs to prepare for the pupate stage. BSR symptoms are retarded growth, one-sided yellowing of the lower fronds, and pale green foliage (Ariffin, 2000). Mahasena corbetti is rarely reported as a serious The specimen was placed also parasitized M. plana (25%) from March to April 2006. Many parthenogenetic hexapods and mites, whether sexual or parthenogenetic, are common and abundant. control thereby minimizing yield loss. The authors wish to thank the management of MHC Plantations Berhad for providing the permission to conduct this study in their premise. 2011). Bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) are one of the important leaf-eating pests of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia. The specimens were sorted out in the field office. Goryphus sp. the highest percentage (37%) of mortality affecting to bagworm population in During the first phase of bagworm sampling about 68.8% of the preyed bagworms were attacked by the hemipteran predators. Control of leaf-eating caterpillars using Bt products or selective/short residue insecticides are carried out when the pest counts exceeded action thresholds. Therefore, no information was available to substantiate this phenomenon. of flower weed and vegetation were observed in the interior part of the plantation, 18.33 ha plot-1 The oil palms were planted in 1991. Bagworms Infesting the Oil Palm 32°C, than M. anisopliae (30°C) (Vidal et In many cases, clonal forms are more widespread than their closest sexual relatives. 6.10. The result of this study shows the infestation rates increased to 22% in one month and reached 100% in three months without management on the bagworms. 63 (November 2011) p24-32 Pest management of bagworm in Southern Perak by aerial spraying with bacillus thuringiensis MOHD MAZMIRA Mohd Masri , SITI RAMLAH Ahmad Ali , NAJIB, M.A. PREDATORS OF OIL PALM BAGWORM By SYARI BIN JAMIAN January 2017 Chairman : Associate Professor Nur Azura Adam, PhD Faculty : Agriculture The use of beneficial plants in the oil palm plantation is nature and food plant for insect predators widening year by year.
2020 symptom of bagworm in oil palm